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S H I V A A D V A I T A
According to the same philosophy, after death the liberated soul goes to Shiva the path of the gods, with no possible return to the terrestrial life.
The individual soul continues to exist in the spiritual level, enjoying the ecstasy of knowing God, enjoying all experiences and powers, except that of creating the universe.
Finally, the individual self does not become one with Brahman, or Shiva, but shares all His qualities and attributes.
The human being is responsible, free to act at one’s own free will, and Shiva fulfills one’s needs in accordance with one’s karma.
Shrikantha wrote in Brahma Sutra Bhasya: "Shiva associates His three energies (iccha - will, jnana - knowledge, kriya - action), enter in the conglomerate of effects and comes out as Universe, comprising the triad of the deities (Brahma -creation, Vishnu - preservation, Rudra - resorbtion). Who can understand Shiva’s greatness, the Almighty, the All-knowing?"
Appaya Dikshita (1554-1626) remains one of the most unusual persons in the history of the Hindu philosophy. Appaya Dikshita’s commentaries on the various philosophical schools were so deep and profound, that these schools claimed his commentaries, even if Appaya Dikshita never adhered to these philosophies.
Ardent devoted of Shiva, he compiled manuals of ritual worship (puja) that are still being used to this day by the Shivait priests.
Moreover, he was an excellent devotional poet. From a philosophical point of view, he adhered to the Advaita school of the sage Adi Shankara. In his debates to re-establish the worship of Shiva against the Vishnuism of those times, he had his life threatened on countless occasions.
The Shaivism had been constricted in the XVI-th century Southern India, due to the "generous" patronship of Ramaraja , king of the Vijayanagar, and continued after his death.
However, Appaya Dikshita managed to gain the grace of the vassal king, then independently Chinna Bomman from Velore, influencing thus the state doctrine.
Appaya Dikshita has perfected the composition of certain commentaries on the various philosophies of the time, including that of Shrikantha. The adepts of this spiritual line claim Appaya’s commentaries on the writings of the dualist Madhva to this very day.
Through his 104 books, Appaya Dikshita has created many harmonious relationships with the other systems of thinking, has promoted the Shaivism among other philosophical approaches and has contributed to the re-establishment of the norms of devotional worship of Shiva.
The leadership of the king Chinna Bomman of Velore ensured the wide spreading of Appaya’s ideas through conferences especially prepared to which took part up to 500 students, and great travels for Appaya and his followers, who served as Shaiva missionaries.
Appaya Dikshita wrote in one of his texts: "since the torrid heat of the malevolent critics against Shiva and His worship waits to destroy and burn the offsprings of Shiva-bhakti, (devotion for Shiva) that might appear in the minds of the devotes (for whom the existing seed is the merit accumulated during their previous births), this work, Shivakarnamrita, with its verse created as if from nectar, is written precisely to help the salvation of these offsprings."
Appaya Dikshita concluded that Shrikantha's philosophies, as well as those of other dualists, or monist-dualists were necessary steps in order to recognize the truth of monism, advaita.
He argued that Shrikantha's accent on Saguna Brahman (God with qualities) more than on Nirguna Brahman (God beyond any quality) was meant to create for the time being the faith and devotion within the Shaivit adepts, because such devotion is a prior element to the knowledge of the Transcendent Absolute, ParamaShiva, Nirguőa Brahman.
Appaya Dikshita said in his work Shivarkamanidipika: "Even if Advaita was the accepted religion, impressed on us by great teachers of the past, such as Shri Shankara (and in many other scriptures as well), the spiritual bend towards monism (Advaita) is produced only by Shiva's grace."
Shiva Advaita appears to have no community of adepts or any formal association these days. However, historically, it can be understood as a profound reconciliation between the Vedanta and Siddhanta. Its major importance lies in the promotion and revigoration of the Shaivism in the XVI-th century, century of great ideological turmoil.